Running Head: PUBLIC HEALTH, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND HEALTH STATISTICS
PUBLIC HEALTH, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND HEALTH STATISTICS 7
Public Health, Epidemiology, and Health Statistics
Trident at American InterContinental University
Module 1 Case: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project
Dr. Robert Grice
December 16, 2020
Introduction to TB Epidemiology
One of the world’s most prevalent diseases is TB infection. An approximate 2 billion people have M. Tuberculosis. Around 10 million people are living with TB each year, and 1.6 million die from TB annually. TB is probably the world’s greatest cause of death because of infectivity (World Health Organization, 2017). In the U.S., doctors and other health care providers are constitutionally obliged to disclose tuberculosis reports to their state or municipal health departments. For tuberculosis surveillance, monitoring is critical. If the health department is aware of a new TB occurrence, action should be taken to ensure the individual gets proper attention and care.
The health department can also launch a contact inquiry. This ensures that a person with TB disease is interviewed first to decide who is otherwise vulnerable to TB. Those exposed to TB would eventually be screened for TB and tuberculosis. The fifty states, the Districts of Puerto Rico Columbia, New York City, and seven other counties report the TB cases to CDC using the regular case reporting mechanism called the Checked Case TB report. The report is a case reporting mechanism (RVCT) (World Health Organization, 2017). To ensure it satisfies certain requirements, any confirmed case of TB is reviewed. Each year are all cases that satisfy the requirements.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Data track
CDC uses this data to track the developments for national TB, identify the critical needs, and prepare the annual reporting report. In 1953 there were far more than 84,000 cases in the United States when national TB records first began. The number of cases of TB declined by an average of 6% annually from 1953 to 1984. The number of tuberculosis cases dropped by 22,201 in 1985. However, in 1986 TB cases were increased, the first considerable increase since 1953. From 1985 to 1992, the number of new cases increased from 22,201 in 1985 to 26,673 in 1992, a rise of about 20% (Figure 2.1).
Factors that contribute to global resurgence of TB
At least five causes can be attributed to the increase in TB cases between 1985 and 1992:
· Insufficient support for TB regulation and other initiatives in public health
· HIV Patients
· High levels of immigration from TB-type countries
· TB diffusion in certain configurations (for example, homeless shelters and correctional facilities)
· The dissemination of multi-drug TB (MDR TB)
Statistics of TB in the United States and Globally
In 1993, the recent TB cases reversed their upward trajectory. The number of cases reduced per year between 1993 and 2014, and again between 2016 and 2017. However, the total number of TB cases identified in the United States rose marginally in 2015(Lewinsohn, 2017). The cumulative number of TB cases since nationwide monitoring started in 1953 was 9,105, and the lowest number of TB cases since that time.
TB infection and TB disease frequently occur in persons born in places where TB is widespread in the United States, such as Asia, Africa, Russia, the east of Europe, and Latin America. There are mainly Non-U.S. M contact and illness exist with born individuals. In their country of birth, tuberculosis. About two-thirds (70%) of all CDC cases registered for TB in 2017 were in Non-US countries (Lewinsohn, 2017). People who have been born reflects more than twice as many as 1993 when 29% of TB cases were registered in Non-US countries than people who have been born. To respond to high TB rates in non-US countries. CDC and other local and international public health organizations work on born citizens to:
· Develop the process of immigration and refugees in the outside world and the home
· Strengthen the new warning mechanism alerting health providers to the arrival of immigrants or TB-suspected refugees
· Tests to ensure treatment completion for new immigrants from the country in which TB infection is widespread.
Persons applying for immigrant and refugee status would be tuberculosis checked by medical practitioners identified as panel doctors before settling in the USA. Before entering the United States, immigrants with TB disease must be treated. Furthermore, at screening, many refugees are afflicted with latent TB but not TB disease (Fojo, 2017). These people may develop TB months or years after they arrive in the USA. Immigrants reported as having an infectious disease of TB or TB disease are reported to the health authorities after their overseas inspection. This warning mechanism encourages health departments to guarantee that patients are reviewed and, if appropriate, treated with TB. U.S.-based medical practitioners known as civil surgeons test and examine TB-based immigrants residing in the U.S. who qualify for permanent residency or citizenship.
Summary of Continuing Challenges to TB Control and Conclusion
In the United States, certain lifestyle habits, including opioid use, are the cause of TB. Smoking can harm the spleen and lungs, resulting in smoking becoming excessively polluted. Tobacco smokers subject you to problems with aviation that increase the chance of tuberculosis. The socially crowded spaces are another feature of behavior that leads a person to get tuberculosis (Fojo, 2017). Furthermore, it’s a possible reason to move around and live there (s). It is viral and can spread by sneezing and cough. It can be propagated by drinks shared with others who have the disease and fear transmitting or contacting the disease with somebody who has already been diagnosed. Excessive cough, night-time sweating, tears, frostbites, and upheaval in the stomach are tube symptoms. The illness will cause heart pain and vomiting. Tuberculosis and meningitis can lead to coughing.
Deficient diagnosis and treatment; extension of Direct Observable Therapy (DOTS) of the Multilateral Tuberculosis (MDRTB), World Health Organization (WHO); and Co-infection with HIV. Old and mostly inadequate diagnostic techniques are used for TB. Pulmonary TB spectroscopy developed in 1882 is not able to detect smear-negative or non-pulmonary TB and is far less reliable in individuals or children that have HIV Virus whose smear findings are always negative (Lewinsohn, 2017). The key issue with these treatments is the need for extended care: schemas usually prescribed for 6-9 months and the lack of lengthy treatment courses leads to reactive stress and recurrence. Drugs generally used to manage TB have also existed on the marketplace for several years: isoniazid was first utilized in 1952 and rifampicin in 1965 and ethambutol in 1968 (World Health Organization, 2017). WHO initiated the 1991 DOTS program to help deal with these onerous therapies and comprises 5 main components: sputum smear microscopy case detection; Government effort to control tuberculosis; daily medicines supply; controlled therapy; and progress reports health system.
Fojo, A. T., Stennis, N. L., Azman, A. S., Kendall, E. A., Shrestha, S., Ahuja, S. D., & Dowdy, D. W. (2017). Current and future trends in tuberculosis incidence in New York City: a dynamic modelling analysis. Lancet Public Health, 2(7), e323-e330. Obtained from Trident Online Library.
Lewinsohn, D. M., Leonard, M. K., LoBue, P. A., Cohn, D. L., Daley, C. L., Desmond, E., … & Woods, G. L. (2017 January 15). Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical practice guidelines: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in adults and children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(2), 111-5. Accessed from LINK:https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/64/2/111/2811357
World Health Organization. (2017). Ethics guidance for the implementation of the End TB strategy. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254820/1/9789241512114-eng.pdf?ua=1