Question: In overweight and obese children from ages 3-18 years old(P), will providing healthcare providers education on pediatric obesity (I) improved patient’s BMI (O) when compared to no healthcare provider education on childhood obesity (C) over a 1-year period.
There were two article that were found to support the chosen PICOT question on provider education and childhood obesity using the CINAHL database. The first article is titled, “Primary care provider knowledge and practice patterns.” This article evaluated the implementation of provider education and clinical guidelines in multiple providers. It was found that providers improved their diagnosis of childhood obesity, ordering laboratory test, and follow up for children with a BMI over 85th percentile. The second article titled, “Provider perceptions of pediatric obesity management in clinical practice.” This study expands on existing research and first article mentioned by evaluating how the perception of barriers to addressing childhood obesity impacted the implementation of clinical guidelines and patient care. It was found that there was a direct correlation with a greater level of barriers identified by PCP or pediatric care providers and the implementation of clinical guidelines for childhood obesity. Both articles agreed that obesity in children is growing concern and can impact the child’s physical and psychological well-being. Early intervention and adherence to clinical guidelines provides the greatest impact on Improve diagnosis of childhood obesity and treatment.
For older patients aged 65 years and older (P), use of an influenza vaccine (I) compared to not receiving the vaccine (C) reduces the risk of developing pneumonia (O) during the flu season (T).
The five pieces of research employed in my literature review have various connections and variations. Zhang et al., (2016), Song et al., (2014), Kondo et al., (2017), Demicheli et al., (2018), and Rondy et al., (2017), studied how the use of an influenza vaccine compared to not receiving the vaccine influence their risk of developing pneumonia during the flu season. The sample size for the studies was not the same as they ranged from 50-2750 patients. Both of these studies involved qualitative approaches for research. Zhang et al., (2016), employed Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CENTRAL databases as search tools which was a unique approach to other studies. As opposed to the other four studies, Zhang et al., (2016) used four studies to address the PICO question. These studies included: Prospective cohort, RCT, Prospective study, and Retrospective study. Another distinctive aspect is for Song et al., (2014), who did a prospective, multicenter unit study that involved patients of age 19 years, and clinical information was gathered since other articles involved patients of 65 years and above in their studies. These articles are related to the PICOT question as they address the issue of how the use of an influenza vaccine compared to not receiving the vaccine influence the risk of developing pneumonia during the flu season. These researches assist in framing the basis for the content for the influenza vaccine in people of age 65 years and above. Forming interferences that focus on support, and scientific competence was shown by these studies to have an impact on the application of the influenza vaccine.
Zhang et al., (2016) and Song et al., (2014) both carried out multivariate studies to establish the success of influenza vaccine for the hindrance of mortality and pneumonia in individuals aged 65 years and above. Zhang et al., (2016), the study employed Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CENTRAL databases as search tools where they examined 142 pieces of research to establish the variation in the success of serving only influenza vaccine against a dual vaccine of pneumococcal and Influenza. These studies support the PICOT question as they review the information regarding the use of an influenza vaccine compared to not receiving the vaccine influence the risk of developing pneumonia during the flu season. The two studies offer a wealth of information supporting the PICO question.
Kondo et al., (2017) and Rondy et al., (2017), conducted studies to assess links between pneumonia in elderly individuals and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the seasonal influenza vaccine. Kondo et al., (2017), employed an analytic epidemiology approach in which 234 cases and 438 controls were involved and controls restricted to respiratory medicine exhibited substantial success of pneumococcal vaccination. Rondy et al., (2017), searched Pubmed that ranged from January 2009 to November 2016 for researches that employed test-negative design to register patients hospitalized with an influenza-related illness.